Background: COVID-19 could cause severe complications in those with pre-existing conditions such as cancer. Here, we aimed to assess the outcome of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients with a history of cancer.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted patients' records with any cancer history out of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Our patients were admitted between February 20th up to July 15th. The primary outcome was death, and the secondary outcomes were overall survival, COVID-19 specific mortality, admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. A group of individuals was selected out of the COVID-19 cohort without cancer history and matched for age, gender, and pre-existing conditions. We utilized univariate and multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of studied variables and primary outcomes.
Results: We identified 46 patients with cancer and COVID-19. The median age was 63, and 54.3% were male. According to the univariate logistic regression analysis, the death was 5.3 (CI95%: 1.75-15.85) times more probable in the cancer patients versus controls (p=0.003). The multivariate analysis adjusted for having cancer and sex, age, and having any comorbidity showed this figure was 5.5 (CI95%:1.8-16.8) (p=0.003). The 30- and 90-day COVID-19 specific mortality was 30% (CI95%:17-43) and 33% (CI95%: 20-46), respectively.
Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 who have a history of cancer have a considerably higher risk of death irrespective of age, gender, and other pre-existing conditions. A group of cancer patients needs the most vigorous care.
Background: This study investigated the possible role of Genistein as a combination with Imatinib in controlling leukemia cell line proliferation.Methods: Three cell lines, K562, Kcl22, and CCRF, were cultured and analyzed for MTT, LDH, apoptosis, and cycle cell gene expression in the presence of different dosages of Imatinib and Genistein in combination or separately.Results: Data has shown a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis activity during combination treatment. LDH assay has shown no additional toxicity due to Genistein consumption in combination therapy. Analysis of the expression of responsible genes for cell cycle demonstrated both G1 (p53, p21 upregulation) andG2 (cdc25c downregulation) inhibitory effect in combination treatment.Conclusion: Altogether, this study suggests thatthe combination treatment of Imatinib and Genistein for leukemia cells resistant to Imatinib can increase treatment efficiency.
Aim: To investigate invitro ursodeoxy cholic acid (UDCA) and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) effect on blast cell viability in children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Patients and Methods: Samples were obtained from a total of 52 newly diagnosed ALL patients aged 1 to 17 years. UDCA and NAC were added at clinical relevant concentrations (0-300 micrograms) onto 5x10^5 cells were treated at room temperature in dark place. Untreated and treated cells were stained with 7AAD PE and analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: Median (IQR) blast percentage and incubation time were 90% (11) and 18 (1.5) hours, respectively. Dead/live blast cells ratio (7AAD+) was lower in lymphoblasts treated with all NAC concentration than untreated controls (p < 0.001). The use of NAC was noted to, regardless of concentration, contributed to lymphoblasts viability. On the contrary, dead/live blast cells ratio in samples treated with UDCA at the above-mentioned concentrations was relatively high, suggesting the protection role for both hepatotoxicty and against leukemia. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). There was also no correlation between different doses of UCDA and NAC regarding blast cell viability (P > 0.232).
Conclusion: The present study showed that in vitro NAC use had a protective effect on lymphoblast viability in newly diagnosed ALL patients before start of chemotherapy, and also patient-derived ALL cells can be successfully analyzed ex vivo in a short and different period of time without loss of blasts.
Background: Beam therapy, the most common and successful treatment used after surgery, plays an important role in treating cancer. In proton therapy, proton beam (PB) particles irradiate the tumor. To enhance the treatment of breast tumors, gold nanoparticles (GNPS) can be injected into the tumor simultaneously as irradiating the PB.Methods: This paper aims to simulate the treatment of breast tumors by using PBs and injecting GNPs with different concentrations simultaneously. We introduced the breast phantom (BP), then we irradiated it with a proton pencil beam, which is also injected with GNPs simultaneously. We used the GEANT4/ GATE7 (G4/G7) code to show the enhancement of the absorbed dose in the tumor.Results: The findings of our simulations show that the location of the Bragg peak within the tumor shifts to higher depths with increasing energy. Also, by injecting GNPs in different amounts of 10, 25, 50, and 75 mg/ml with simultaneous irradiation of the PB, the rate of absorbed dose increases up to 1.75% compared to the non-injected state. Our results also show that the optimal range of proton energy that creates the Bragg peaks within the tumor is between 28 to 35 MeV, which causes the spread out of the Bragg peak. It should be noted that the amount of absorbed dose is affected by quantities such as total stopping power, average Coulomb scattering angle, CSDA range, and straggling range.Conclusion: This work offers new insights based on the use of GNPS in the treatment of breast cancer through proton therapy and indicates that adding GNPS is a promising strategy to increase the killing of cancer cells while irradiating fast PBs.In fact, the results of this study confirm the ability of GNPs to enhance treatment byincreasing the absorbed dose in breast tumors using proton therapy.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between nutritional knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) and physical activity (PA) on the quality of life (QOL) in women with breast cancer (BC).Methods: This cross-sectional study involved all women with BC who referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran during the years 2018-2019 that by using Cochran formula, 220 of them were selected by convenience sampling and answered the questionnaire including Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude, Practice Survey (KAP) and Quality of life Questionnaire for breast cancer patients (QLQ-30). To determine the share of nutritional variables and physical activity (PA) in predicting QOL, standard multiple regression was used by SPSS 22 software.Results: The findings of the study showed that the BC patients’ PA (109.61±110.831),QOL (49.805±16.830) and KAP (K= 46.028±11.879; A=45.540±19.754; P=46.870±12.362) were not in a good condition.The best functional outcomes of QLQ-30 questionnaire were found for social functioning (73.560±26.873) and role functioning (73.560±26.873) subscales whereas emotional functioning was found lowest (58.257±24.298). Also, theresults showed that Nutrition-RelatedKnowledge (β=144; P=0.036), Attitudes (β=160;P=0.038), and Practice (β=0.596; P=0.045) and PA (β=0.042; P=0.001) were significant factors in predicting cancer patients’ quality of life.Conclusion: The study showed that active patients have a good QOL, also, right nutritional choices and performance by the patients can result in a better quality of life,therefore, the patients should receive special interventions at this time.
Background: We evaluated the role of early diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting response to TACE in patients with HCC and compare the results with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
METHODS: 24 patients with documented HCC were taken up for TACE after a pre-procedural contrast CT and MRI. Post procedural DWI was taken on day 5-7 and the mean ADC values were documented and compared to pre procedural values. The change in ADC values was grouped into 4 categories: group 1- <25%, group 2 26-50%, group 3- 51-75% and group 4- >75%. The increase in ADC values signifying response was correlated with 5 week CEMRI scan and a threshold ADC increase signifying response in majority of the cases was calculated.
RESULTS: The mean ADC of the lesions changed from 1.21× 10-3 (pre TACE) to 2.02× 10-3 mm2/sec (post TACE) [p<0.001]. Taking CE MRI as gold standard, DWI imaging had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 94.7% with a positive predictive value of 80%, negative predictive value of 94.7% and overall accuracy of 91.7%. Complete response was seen in19 (79%) and incomplete in 5 (21%) patients in our study. The change in ADC was significantly higher in responders (884.15 ± 161.60) as compared to non responders (564.80 ± 221.05) [p =0.001].
CONCLUSION: Early DWI after TACE can predict response of a HCC lesion to chemoembolization. The change in ADC values can earmark responders from non-responders. Early DWI results are concordant with CEMRI results in most of the cases. DWI can act as a substitute to CEMRI when contrast administration is not advised.
Genetic heterogeneity accompanied by metastasis are the most important factors which have faced cancer treatment with the challenge. Recent studies have introduced a mutant of diphtheria toxin, cross-reacting materials 197 (CRM197), as a promising new biological anticancer drug to improve cancer therapy in patients who have previously resistant to chemotherapy. The weak toxicity of CRM197 accounts for the stimulation of cell apoptosis and the antitumor effect. Increasing evidence has indicated that the expression of Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like (HB-EGF) growth factor enhanced in most of the cancer cells and CRM197 is the specific inhibitor of it. The current study has focused on the structure, properties, and anticancer activity of CRM197.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myelo-proliferative neoplasm and one of the main subtypes of leukemia which mainly affects adults. The incidence increases slowly with age until the middle of the fourth decade, then it rises rapidly. Anemia, splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms are the most common signs and symptoms at presentation. Here we report a 27-year-old man who was presented with bone pain and generalized abdominal pain. He also had weight loss, because of anorexia and easy satiety. Qualitative probe based real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) test result was positive for BCR-ABL1 (t9:22) P210 mutation. The patient was treated with imatinib, standard first-line therapy, and showed clinical improvement. His pain was also decreased and discharged in good condition.