Vol 13 No 2 (2021)

Original Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 185 | views: 381 | pages: 111-118
    Background: Gynecologic cancers (GCs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in females worldwide. Estimating the cancer burden is invaluable to set up priorities for research funding allocations, cancer control policies, and prevention strategies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently released the latest estimates on the prevalence, incidence, and mortality for 36 types of cancer and all cancer sites combined in 185 countries in 2020. Methods: We obtained data on the incidence, mortality, and prevalence of GCs in the Iranian female population from the GLOBOCAN 2020 database presented by the IARC, compared the burden with the previous reports presented in 2012 and 2018, and provided the estimates for 2040. In addition, we compared the burden to that of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) and the world. Results: There has been a slight increase in the incidence of GCs in recent years after stable rates for a couple of decades. The growing availability of incidence rates from population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) and mortality rates from vital statistics offices in Iran may account for the increasing trend. Conclusions: Cancer awareness campaigns and high-quality prevention programs may result in better GC prevention among women.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 149 | views: 237 | pages: 84-91
    Background and Goal:After lung cancer, breast cancer is considered as the second prevailed type of cancer among women. Circular RNAs are a group of non-coding RNAs that through endogenous RNAs’ mechanism play role in tumorigenesis and progression of malignancies. However, little information is known about their role and importance in cancer progression and their chemical resistance. The research has been performed to the aim of studying effect of effective dosages of Iron superoxide and nickel oxide nanoparticles, and Q10 antioxidant alone or simultaneously on hsa_circ_0001518 expression in mice with breast cancer compared to healthy mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 mature female mice BALB/c (Five groups of 10 mice each) have been studied in two groups of healthy mice and those with breast cancer. Inducing breast cancer has been taken place through injection of 4T1 cell line to mice. IC50has been specified on 4T1 cell line through 48 hours treatment with iron superoxide (50, 100, 150, and 200mcg/ml) and nickel oxide (10, 20, 30, and 40mcg/ml) nanoparticles, and Q10 antioxidant (20, 60, 80, and 100mcg/ml). Finally, effect of IC50in treatments alone and combination therapy with iron superoxide, nickel oxide, and Q10 antioxidant on hsa_circ_0001518 has been evaluated, using real-time-PCR. Findings: The results from bioinformatic analysis of circBase showed that hsa_circ_0001518 affects Bcl2 apoptosis inhibitor gene and can play role in creation and progression of breast cancer through anti-apoptotic effects. IC50has been calculated to be respectively equal to 42.92, 49.21, and 47.83mcg/ml for nanoparticles of iron superoxide, nickel oxide, and Q10 antioxidant. The results related for real time PCR showed that expression level of hsa_circ_0001518 under combination therapy with nanoparticles of iron superoxide, nickel oxide and Q10 antioxidant in cancerous cells compared to healthy cells has shown significant reduction. Discussion and Conclusion:The research results confirm increase of cell damage resulted from oxidative stress of nanoparticles of iron superoxide and nickel oxide in combination therapy with Q10 antioxidant compared to treatments alone in cancerous mice. So, using nanoparticles and Q10 simultaneously can be considered in designing a medicine for breast cancer treatment. Oxidative stress resulted from nanoparticle treatment in combination with Q10 can have inhibitory effect on Q10 antioxidant properties in cancerous cells; and, with induction of apoptosis; it may lead to decrease of hsa_circ_0001518 expression. Therefore, studying changes of expression level of hsa_circ_0001518 can be taken into consideration in future and after performance of follow up studies as a molecular biomarker in breast cancer diagnosis and target therapy.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 45 | views: 97 | pages: 105-110
    Background: By identifying the local foci and clusters of diseases, it can be hoped to reduce the incidence and deaths of the disease by making the necessary interventions. It was aimed to detect possible colorectal cancer incidence clusters using spatial analyses at point-level data at small census units in Arak, Iran from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this ecologic study, recorded data on colorectal cancer in Arak have been collected from the Arak Cancer Registry. All records have been evaluated one-by-one using various methods to detect and resolve any probable error events or duplicated records. Then SaTScan software was used to explore spatial clusters. Discrete Poisson-based Probability Model was used to analyze the clusters. Results: 398 incidence cases of colorectal cancer was included. Three spatial clusters of colorectal cancer using individual geocodes were detected. The most high-risk cluster was located in the near of south highway of Arak, the highway with transit road of heavy and light vehicles(p=0.0004). The second significant high-risk cluster was a district located in the vast part of the center of Arak. The identified third high-risk cluster was an area in suburb of Arak, Proximity of Farmahin-Arak road and Northern highway. Conclusion: This study has identified three important clusters for the high incidence of colorectal cancer in Arak. Residents of these clusters need to be screened and trained to learn a healthy lifestyle. It is recommended that analytical studies at the individual level be designed and implemented to find the risk factors for colorectal cancer.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 53 | views: 171 | pages: 127-132
    Background and Objective: During the COVID-19 epidemic, concerns about cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy have increased because of the numerous hospital visits which potentially may increase the risk of contracting COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the incidence of COVID-19 among patients visiting our radiation oncology department during the first and second peaks of the epidemic. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included all patients who underwent radiotherapy from November 2019 to September 2020. We made a telephone call to the patients and asked if they had COVID-19 during this time, and if so, how they were diagnosed? Both clinical signs or a positive PCR test were acceptable as COVID-19 diagnostic criteria. We also gathered the data regarding cancer and treatment status out of the patients’ records in the ward medical library. This study was approved by the institutional review board and ethics committee (code: IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1399.104).  Results During the study period, 687 patients were admitted to our radiation oncology ward. The median age was 55 (IQR: 44-65) and 424 (61.7%) were female. Twenty-three (3.3%) patients developed COVID-19, 15 (65.2%) of whom were diagnosed with clinical symptoms and 8 (34.8%) with PCR. Twelve and 11 patients contracted COVID-19 in the first and second peaks of the epidemic, respectively. Even though no patients with skin cancer or sarcomas of the bone or soft tissue contracted COVID-19, the highest frequency for COVID-19 was seen among patients with intrathoracic or lung cancer with 38 times the odds of patients with head and neck cancer to catch COVID-19. The following highly susceptible patients were those with hematologic and upper GI and gynecologic cancers, respectively. We found a significant association between intrathoracic (mainly lung) cancers and being infected with COVID-19 (P-Value = 0.02). Conclusion Patients undergoing intrathoracic cancer radiotherapy are at higher risk to contract COVID-19. We believe these patients should be prioritized in any screening or case-finding program in cancer patients and also in vaccination programs.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 79 | views: 339 | pages: 119-126
    Abstract Background: The 4T1 is a mice transplantable mammary carcinoma cell line with the highly tumorigenic and invasive specification, making it suitable preclinical oncology model for triple- negative breast cancer (TNBC). The aim of this pilot study was to model the clinical stages and evaluate the response to treatment with the paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) in tumors caused by this cell line. Methods: The syngeneic tumors were developed in BALB/c female mice by 4T1 cell line. The mice were randomly distributed into three different groups, each contains four. A group of four was considered as healthy normal. Following tumor growth reached 100-300 mm3, two groups were received the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of paclitaxel and doxorubicin, respectively. The group of sham control was injected with normal saline. The tumors and the tumor margins tissues were removed by surgery one week following chemotherapy. Angiogenesis genes and MVD were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Response to treatment was also assessed by standard methods of H&E staining. Results: TNBC tumors were confirmed by pathological staining. The volume of tumors and the angiogenesis gene expressions of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and HIF1α were decreased in treated-tumors compared to control with p<0.05.The response to treatment to PTX was more than DOX, and the MVD was decreased in both the PTX and DOX chemotherapy groups. Conclusions: Although PTX is more effective than DOX in reducting of angiogenesis genes, both have the potential for treatment in the 4T1 mouse model.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 398 | views: 276 | pages: 92-104
    Cancer is a genetic illness that develops for a variety of reasons, including the activation of onco-genes, the failure of tumor suppressor genes, or mutagenesis induced by environmental stimuli. This article was produced using data from the journals PubMed, Nature, Science Direct, Springer, and Elsevier. Oncogenes are altered forms of normal proto-oncogenic genes that are important for cell proliferation, development, and regulation. The transformation of a gene to an oncogene is caused by translocation, chromosomal translocation, or gene mutation due to addition, deletion, duplication, or viral infection. To limit malignant cell development, these oncogens are targeted by medications or the RNAi system. Various molecular biology methods for cancer detection and treatment have been developed, including retroviral therapy, oncogene silencing, and alterations in tumor suppressor genes. Among all the techniques used, RNAi, zinc finger nucleases, and CRISPR have a greater chance of reaching a cancer-free planet.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 213 | views: 256 | pages: 143-155
    Cancer treatment has traditionally been comprised of established treatments such as radiation, surgical excision, and chemotherapy, which can be used alone or in combination. Many therapeutic factors have been extracted from minerals, plants, and animals, the majority of them have been synthesized in the lab, making them a valuable source of innovation pharmacologically. Due to the in vitro cytotoxic effect of metal complexes, the interest in these compounds increases day by day in cancer treatment. The electronic nature of metals, modifications in ligands, and conformational changes in functional groups give rise to the discovery of drugs with different cytotoxic and pharmacokinetic properties. In recent decades, the number of persons receiving chemotherapy has increased considerably. Medicinal inorganic chemistry can take advantage of the unique properties of metal ions to generate new drugs. This has prompted chemists to use various approaches creating novel metal-based anticancer drugs with various mechanisms of action, which are significant in the pharmaceutical industry due to their potent anticancer properties. Schiff base ligands and transition metals are the most researched coordination chemicals. Their applications as anticancer medicines are becoming more significant. This research analyzes various publications linked to copper complexes based on Schiff base hydrazone ligand in cancer treatment, and this review will analyze publications on these compounds' anticancer qualities.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 41 | views: 350 | pages: 133-142
    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptive pathway activated by the stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress often occurs due to the high protein synthesis in cells and errors made in folding in several diseases such as different cancers and autoimmune diseases. UPR is mediated by three primary arms called inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α), protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α). Given that homeostasis in protein synthesis is frequently deregulated in cancers, UPR has a critical role in controlling survival and cell death. Indeed, cancer cells’ resistance to apoptosis is mediated by the pro-survival mechanism of ER stress. Due to the deregulation of UPR signaling in hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia, protein translation will not be set well, and in this time, targeting UPR-driven pro-survival pathways could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in leukemia. This study aims to provide an updated role of UPR as a novel target in leukemia.