Vol 12 No 4 (2020)


Original Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 220 | views: 255 | pages: 166-176
    Background: Cancer is an important public health problem, and its burden is increasing globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) alongside the government could address health issues based on their goals. We studied activities of the cancer NGOs related to breast cancer (BC) prevention in Iran.  Methods: We studied the BC prevention programs conducted by Iranian cancer NGOs and collected their data and information regarding BC awareness and screening.  We reviewed the objectives of the cancer charities who were members of the "Iran Cancer National Network of NGOs and Charities (ICNNC)".  Results: Overall, 43 charities were an active member of the ICCNNC and were engaged in 6 areas, including 1) financial and non-financial supports, 2) providing medical services, 3) providing accommodation to companions of the patients traveling from other cities, 4) supplying infrastructure and medical equipment to cancer hospitals, 5) conducting scientific and research activities, and 6) running educational and awareness campaigns. Most activities were on financial and non-financial supports. Five charities reported their movement on BC prevention.  Conclusion:  Most charities did not document their prevention programs and did not follow an organized screening program. Training and capacity building is needed to support the cancer NGOs for evidence-based cancer prevention program. 
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 87 | views: 131 | pages: 177-183
    Background: In the last two decades, canine mammary cancer has played an important role in human breast cancer research. In many cases, there are various similarities between the biological and clinical features of canine breast cancer and female breast cancer. Clinical studies and evaluation of prognostic parameters of canine mammary cancer can increase confidence in generalizing results for human cancers. This study was performed in the direction of comparative oncology. Methods: Clinical-pathological data from invasive type of canine mammary carcinoma were collected from clinical records and pathology reports. The parameters of age, tumor laterality, tumor size, lymph node status and tumor grade were recorded and the relationships between the parameters were evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: 97 patients were included in the study and the mean age was 10.06 ± 2.73 years. 51% of the left mammary glands were involved and pT2 tumor size was the most common. Lymph nodes were involved in 27% of patients and 43% of tumors were grade I. Statistical analysis showed no statistical relationship between tumor size and laterality with other clinico-pathological features. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between tumor size and tumor grade and the condition of lymph nodes, so that with increasing tumor size, tumor grade increased and the likelihood of lymph node involvement increased. Conclusions: The results of this study are very similar to breast cancer in women and show that canine mammary carcinoma is a suitable model in comparative oncology research. Dogs live shorter than humans, so researchers can get the results of treatment and survival rate assessments faster in clinical trials. By observing ethical principles, dogs with breast cancer may replace phase I and II of human clinical trials in some types of cancer in the near future.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 56 | views: 170 | pages: 184-192
    Background: Different factors can affect the future of a person with cancer. Patient’s systemic inflammatory response is an important factor. Several inflammatory markers have been evaluated for measuring the patient’s response to cancer. In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic factors of surveillance in patients with pathologic approved esophageal cancer. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with pathologically approved esophageal cancer, who underwent surgical treatment in cancer institute of Iran, were included. Demographic, pathologic and laboratory data of patients were obtained from archive of medical records. Results: In this study 135 patients with esophageal cancer with mean age of 60 years were studied.The median time of follow-up period was 21 months. Mean NLR and PLR were 7.05 and 898 respectively. Patients’ survival had a significant relationship with patients’ age, gender, tumor’s diffrentiation, receiving chemotherapy, absolute neutrophil count, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and NLR. Conclusion: According to the results, in a multi variable investigation, it was demonstrated that a high NLR has a direct effect on patients’ poor survival.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 58 | views: 151 | pages: 193-200
    Introduction: Breast cancer is the highest incidence and mortality of female malignant tumors with negative axillary lymph nodes has been diagnosed mainly at an early stage. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard screening technique for patients with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy mapping was regularly used as the standard method for SLNB. Recently, ultrasound-guided wire localization (USGWL) is a well-established technique with superior outcomes. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether preoperative UGWL and lymphoscintigraphy (blue dye and isotope injection) improve SLN detection and false-negative rate in breast cancer patients undergoing SLNB and also identify clinical factors that may affect the diagnostic accuracy of axillary ultrasound. Patients and methods: Between December 2018 and June 2019, 55 patients with clinical T1-3N0 breast cancer who were eligible for an SLNB at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran included in our study. Tumor characteristics and demographic information were collected from medical records, and prepared questionnaires by our surgical team. The day before SLNB, all patients underwent ultrasound-guided wire localization of SLN. Lymphoscintigraphy performed with an unfiltered 99mTc-labelled sulfur colloid peritumoral injection followed by methylene blue dye injection. The results were analyzed based on the permanent pathology report.  Results: Among the 55 patients, (71.8%) SLNs were detected by wire localization, while (57.8%) SLNs were found by methylene blue mapping and (59.6%) by gamma probe detection. In comparison with wire localization and isotope injection, the methylene blue dye technique had low sensitivity of 72.2%, while both wire localization and isotope injection reached 77.8%. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of UGWL were 77.8%, 42.1%, and 65.4%, respectively. Otherwise, the accuracy of methylene blue dye and isotope injection was 47.3% and 50.1%, respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between BMI, tumor size, laterality, reactive ALN, and the accuracy of preoperative AUS. But there was no significant correlation between age, weight, height, tumor biopsy, tumor location, the time interval between methylene blue dye and isotope injection to surgery, and also the type of surgery to the accuracy of preoperative AUS. Conclusion: Preoperative UGWL can effectively identify SLNs compared to lymphoscintigraphy (blue dye and isotope injection) in early breast cancer patients undergoing SLNB. 

Case Reports

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 77 | views: 151 | pages: 201-206
    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare primary liver tumor that affects young adults, with unknown biology. We present a case of 21‐yr‐old female with a liver tumor revealed by hemangioma feature at first presentation, after few months, presented with metastatic liver cancer. In pathologic investigation fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma was confirmed. In spite of liver mass resection and lung metastasectomy, after short time, tumor recurrence was occurred. In 18F-FDG PET-CT scan ,lung, ovary, colon and peritoneal invasion was reported. Unfortunately, The patient died one year after diagnosis with rapid progression and multiple unusual metastatic site. Here, we also review the literature concerning FLHCC in many aspects.