Vol 12 No 1 (2020)

Original Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 370 | views: 337 | pages: 1-9
    Background: The socioeconomic status as a major determinant of health status has a considerable impact on the cancer survival rate. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of socioeconomic factors on the 5-year survival rate for the most common cancer types in 56 countries. Methods: In this ecological study, 5-year survival data for gastric cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia during the period of 2005-2009 and socioeconomic factors including gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy rate, urbanization and healthcare expenditure were extracted from the CONCORD-2 study and the World Bank database, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the model with the ordinary least-squares (OLS) method using Stata 14 software. Results: The GDP coefficient for breast cancer, cervical cancer, and leukemia was positive and significant. No correlation was identified between gastric, colon, lung, ovarian, and prostate cancers with GDP. Gastric, colon, breast, and prostate cancers had a positive and significant correlation with life expectancy, while no significant correlation was found between lung cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and leukemia with life expectancy. There was no correlation between cancer survival rate and literacy rate, or urbanization. There was only a positive correlation between prostate cancer with healthcare expenditure. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant relationship between gastric and ovarian cancers with socioeconomic variables. Finally, GDP and life expectancy had the most significant impact on cancer survival rates. Conclusion: Different countries can play a key role in increasing cancer survival rates by implementing policies to improve economic and social factors.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 378 | views: 270 | pages: 10-17
    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (containing approximately 22 nucleotides), which modulate and control the expression of target genes by binding them. MiRNAs play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Thus, alterations in the expression level of miRNAs play a key role in the pathobiology of numerous cancers. In this research, the expression level of MicroRNA-1290 (miR1290) and its target genes THBS1 and DKK3 were evaluated in colorectal cancer  (CRC) patients.Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 144 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of CRC and adjacent tissues from patients who referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue using Trizol reagent following the manufacturer’s instructions and then reverse transcribed to cDNA.The expression of miR-1290 and its target genes was measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V.20 statistical software. Results: We present evidence that the miR-1290 expression in CRC tissues was significantly higher than in the normal margin, and its targets were downregulated in tumor tissue compared to the adjacent tissue.Conclusion: This study supports the essential role of miR-1290 and its contribution to CRC invasion and metastasis through targeting THBS1 and DKK3, as biomarkers for CRC diagnosis.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 383 | views: 385 | pages: 18-25
    Background: Hodgkin’s lymphoma is one of the most commonly diagnosed lymphomas in Western society. Today Reed-Sternberg cells are identified by positive staining of several biomarkers. The IMP3 (insulin-like growth factor II m-RNA-binding protein 3) marker is a member of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein family that has been suggested as a diagnostic marker in some epithelial malignancies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression profile of IMP3 in Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients and compare it with those with large cell lymphoma. Methods: In this study, patients diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma between 2016 and 2018 were recruited. For the control group, patients diagnosed with large cell lymphoma were chosen. Paraffin blocks were collected and cut by a microtome machine. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on the slides for the IMP3 marker, using the Envision method. The color intensity was divided into four groups, and data on age, gender, staining intensity, sampling rate, and staining pattern entered at the end of the checklists. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software. The paired t-test has was employed, and a significant statistical level of 0.05 was considered in all tests. Results: In this study, 145 patients in a wide range of 5 to 84 years (the mean age = 41 ± 17 years) were studied. Fifty-three patients were diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (36.6%), 4 cases (2.8%) with anaplastic large cell lymphoma and 88 cases with (60.7%) Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Among 145 patients in the current study, 143 patients (98.6%) were positive for IMP3. IMP3 was positive in all patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and only 2 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were negative for this maker, in whom severe necrosis was noted. Consequently, there is not a vivid difference between Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (p-value=0.153) Conclusion: The marker is positive for Hodgkin’s lymphoma with a negative background and may be used as a supplementary marker along with CD15 and CD30 to detect neoplastic cells. However, it cannot help differentiate it from large cell lymphomas because it is also positive for non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 419 | views: 1784 | pages: 26-33
    Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the blood cancers responsible for 80% of children’s leukemia and is also the most common malignancy in patients aged under 14 years (frequency of 23% among all types of cancers). Regarding the importance of identifying clinical symptoms to diagnose the disease in the early stages, this study is conducted to investigate the symptoms at diagnosis in ALL children. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 350 patients aged under 14, referring to four hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences as reference hospitals in Southern Iran, participated between 2013 and 2019. Their information was collected using patients’ records, and the data were analyzed using SPSS version16. Results: Based on the findings of this study, the first clinical manifestations of the disease happened suddenly and acute, occurring within a few days to a maximum of 6 weeks before diagnosis. Fever (70%) and hepatomegaly (60%) were the most common signs and symptoms in patients. However, a significant percentage of ALL patients referred with non-specific symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the importance of recognizing common and unusual signs and symptoms based on a complete and thorough history taking and accurate physical examination as well as rare symptoms that may be ignored or misdiagnosed by physicians. The knowledge of common signs and symptoms results in early diagnosis of the disease in early stages.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 389 | views: 213 | pages: 34-41
    Background: Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death globally, and the second most common cancer in Europe. About 8% of all cancer-related deaths occur due to colorectal cancer, and the highest prevalence has been reported in Asia and Eastern Europe. Methods: In this experimental study, 80 rats were divided into two groups of cases (n=70) and controls (n=10). Colorectal cancer was induced weekly in rats by subcutaneous injection of 15 mg/kg Azoxymethane. The rats were then divided into 7 experimental subgroups of patients, saline, quercetin, intermittent exercise, continuous exercise, quercetin plus intermittent, and quercetin plus continuous exercise. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the rats' heart tissue by the ELISA method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA by SPSS software. Results: Oxidative stress in heart cells increased due to colorectal cancer. Quercetin alone or in combination with exercise significantly increased mean levels of CAT and SOD in the heart tissue of rats compared with patient and saline groups (P<0.0001). In contrast, the MDA level was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Colorectal cancer increased the oxidative stress in cardiac cells. Quercetin alone improved oxidative stress in cardiac tissue, and its combination with exercise was more effective.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 446 | views: 379 | pages: 42-53
      In recent years, advances in cancer treatment have improved the survival rate of cancer patients significantly. However, destructive damage to ovaries due to the therapies or cancer itself can cause different degrees of infertility in women of reproductive age that can affect their quality of life seriously. In this study, fertility cryopreservation options for female cancer patients in oncology guidelines were reviewed. Cryopreservation methods have a long history in reproductive biology and oncology. However, embryo and oocyte cryopreservation were the eligible restoration strategies in clinical oncology practice. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is the latest option recommended for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal and adult patients who cannot delay their treatment or in whom taking IVF hormones may have adverse effects on their cancer. Reports show that frozen-thawed ovarian tissue transplantation has led to more than 130 live births so far in patients, most of whom were cancer patients. Although OTC is indeed generally recognized as an investigational method, it is recommended in some important guidelines, such as ASCO 2018. Therefore, based on many clinical pieces of evidence, it is predicted that the investigational label will soon be removed, and OTC might be considered as one of the main fertility preservation options for female cancer patients in clinical oncology practice.