Original Articles

The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on Cancer Survival Rate


Background: The socioeconomic status as a major determinant of health status has a considerable impact on the cancer survival rate. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of socioeconomic factors on the 5-year survival rate for the most common cancer types in 56 countries. Methods: In this ecological study, 5-year survival data for gastric cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia during the period of 2005-2009 and socioeconomic factors including gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy rate, urbanization and healthcare expenditure were extracted from the CONCORD-2 study and the World Bank database, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the model with the ordinary least-squares (OLS) method using Stata 14 software. Results: The GDP coefficient for breast cancer, cervical cancer, and leukemia was positive and significant. No correlation was identified between gastric, colon, lung, ovarian, and prostate cancers with GDP. Gastric, colon, breast, and prostate cancers had a positive and significant correlation with life expectancy, while no significant correlation was found between lung cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and leukemia with life expectancy. There was no correlation between cancer survival rate and literacy rate, or urbanization. There was only a positive correlation between prostate cancer with healthcare expenditure. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant relationship between gastric and ovarian cancers with socioeconomic variables. Finally, GDP and life expectancy had the most significant impact on cancer survival rates. Conclusion: Different countries can play a key role in increasing cancer survival rates by implementing policies to improve economic and social factors.
1. Thun MJ, DeLancey JO, Center MM, Jemal A, Ward EM. The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(1):100-110.
2. Rebecca L. Siegel, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2018. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2018;68(1):7-30.
3. Kanavos P. The rising burden of cancer in the developing world. Annals of oncology. 2006;17(8):15-23.
4. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2011;61(2):69-90.
5. Lillini R, Vercelli M, Quaglia A, Micheli A, Capocaccia R. Use of socio-economic factors and healthcare resources to estimate cancer survival in European countries with partial national cancer registration. Tumori Journal. 2011;97(3):265-74.
6. Haghighat S, Olfatbaksh a, Akram S¬¬¬, Mehrdad N, Ansari M, Ebrahimi M, et al. Survival rate and its correlated factors in breast cancer patients referred to Breast Cancer Research Center. Iranian Quarterly Journal of Breast Diseases. 2013;6(3):28-36.
7. Rutherford MJ, Andersson T-L, Møller H, Lambert P. Understanding the impact of socioeconomic differences in breast cancer survival in England and Wales: avoidable deaths and potential gain in expectation of life. Cancer epidemiology. 2015;39(1):118-25.
8. Antunes L, Mendonça D, Bento MJ, Rachet B. No inequalities in survival from colorectal cancer by education and socioeconomic deprivation-a population-based study in the North Region of Portugal, 2000-2002. BMC cancer. 2016;16(1):608.
9. Evans B, Pritchard C. Cancer survivals and GDP expenditure on health: a comparison of England and Wales and the USA, Denmark, Netherlands, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland in the 1990s. Public Health. 2000;114(5):336-9.
10. Frederiksen BL, Osler M, Harling H, Ladelund S, Jørgensen T. Do patient characteristics, disease, or treatment explain social inequality in survival from colorectal cancer? Social science & medicine. 2009;69(7):1107-15.
11. Dickman PW, Auvinen A, Voutilainen ET, Hakulinen T. Measuring social class differences in cancer patient survival: is it necessary to control for social class differences in general population mortality? A Finnish population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 1998;52(11):727-34.
12. Allemani C, Weir HK, Carreira H, Harewood R, Spika D, Wang X-S, et al. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25676887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2). The Lancet. 2015;385(9972):977-1010.
13. World Bank database: https://www.data.worldbank.org/. Last Access: Apr 16, 2020.
14. Moghimi Dehkordi B, Rajaeefard A, Tabatabaee H, Zeighami B, Safaee A, Tabeie Z. Modeling survival analysis in gastric cancer patients using the proportional hazards model of Cox. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2007;3(1):19-24.
15. Crew KD, Neugut AI. Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Semin Oncol; 2004;31(4):450-64.
16. Quaglia A, Vercelli M, Lillini R, Mugno E, Coebergh JW, Quinn M, et al. Socio-economic factors and health care system characteristics related to cancer survival in the elderly: A population-based analysis in 16 European countries (ELDCARE project). Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2005;54(2):117-28.
17. Batouli A, Jahanshahi P, Gross CP, Makarov DV, James BY. The global cancer divide: Relationships between national healthcare resources and cancer outcomes in high-income vs. middle-and low-income countries. Journal of epidemiology and global health. 2014;4(2):115-24.
18. Micheli A, Baili P, Quinn M, Mugno E, Capocaccia R, Grosclaude P. Life expectancy and cancer survival in the EUROCARE-3 cancer registry areas. Annals of Oncology. 2003;14(5):28-40.
19. Rajaeifard A, Talei A, Baneshi M. Survival analysis models for breast cancer patients in Shiraz, 1993-2002. JMR. 2005;3(4):41-50.
20. Baeradeh N, Lotfi M, Fallahzadeh H, Kargar S, Salman Roghani H. Survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and its effective factors in Yazd Province. The Journal of Community Health Research. 2015;3:278-87.
21. Heise K, Bertran E, Andia ME, Ferreccio C. Incidence and survival of gastric cancer in a high-risk population of Chile. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2009;15(15):1854.
22. Seedhom AE, Kamal NN. Factors affecting survival of women diagnosed with breast cancer in El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. International journal of preventive medicine. 2011;2(3):131.
23. Li CI. Breast Cancer Epidemiology. 2010, New York: Springer.
24. Cella DF, Orav EJ, Kornblith AB, Holland JC, Silberfarb PM, Lee KW, et al. Socioeconomic status and cancer survival. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1991;9(8):1500-9.
25. Hashibe M, Kirchhoff AC, Kepka D, Kim J, Millar M, Sweeney C, et al. Disparities in cancer survival and incidence by metropolitan versus rural residence in Utah. Cancer medicine. 2018;7(4):1490-7.
26. Jong KE, Smith DP, Xue QY, O'Connell DL, Goldstein D, Armstrong BK. Remoteness of residence and survival from cancer in New South Wales. Medical Journal of Australia. 2004;180(12):618.
IssueVol 12 No 1 (2020) QRcode
SectionOriginal Articles
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/bccr.v12i1.5728
Socioeconomic Cancer Survival Rate

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Daroudi R, Sargazi N, Sakhidel-Hovasin A, Sheikhy-Chaman M. The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on Cancer Survival Rate. Basic Clin Cancer Res. 2020;12(1):1-9.