Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and E-cadherin play a vital role in the behavior of angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion of breast tumor cells. Piperine, the main component of Piper Nigrum, has shown anti-cancer properties in various malignancies. This Study investigates the potential effect of piperine on MMP-9, E-cadherin, and VEGF expression in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
Methods: MTT assay was applied to assess the viability of MCF-7 cells. The mRNA levels of MMP-9, VEGF, and E-cadherin were assayed by qRT-PCR. Western blot was performed to identify the protein level of MMP-9.
Results: MTT assay results showed that piperine treatment (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μM) for 24 hours effectively inhibited cell viability of MCF-7 cells as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the gene expression of VEGF, MMP-9, and E-cadherin was dose-dependently suppressed by piperine treatment (5, 10 and 25 μM) (P<0.05; P<0.01). The results also indicated that piperine (5, 10, and 25 μM) significantly suppressed MMP-9 protein expression after 24 hours of piperine treatment (P<0.01).
Conclusion: These results suggest that piperine may prevent angiogenesis, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 cells by suppressing MMP-9 and VEGF, and by inducing E-cadherin expression. Hence, it may be a suitable candidate for designing new drugs in cancer therapy.
Background: Imaging, cytological examination of ascites (if present), laparoscopy, and peritoneal lavage are performed before surgery for gastric cancer staging. Peritoneal lavage aims to diagnose the microscopic presence of tumor cells on the peritoneal surface. Positive cytology may have a prognostic value that classifies the disorder as stage IV, in which the patient is no longer an elective surgical candidate. Thus, our study was designed to assess the ability of peritoneal lavage to stage gastric cancer in non-ascitic patients based on cytological evaluation and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level measurement.
Methods: In our prospective study, we examined gastric cancer patients who were candidates for elective surgery. Upon entering the abdominal cavity and before tumor manipulation, normal saline (500 ml) was applied, and the abdominal cavity was thoroughly dispersed. After three minutes, the fluid was drained and addressed to cytological analysis and CEA measurement by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Study variables including age, sex, family history, tumor position, pathology, staging, grading, the original tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, and distant metastases were recorded during the pre-and postoperative staging. The association between positive peritoneal lavage cytology and various patients’ characteristics was investigated.
Results: In this study, 94 patients were screened. Due to lymphoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), two patients were excluded. We examined 92 patients, including 63 males (68.5 %) and 29 females (31.5 %). The mean age of patients was 58.52 ± 11.87 years. The most common tumor location was the esophagogastric junction. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was the most frequent microscopic diagnosis. T3 was the most prevalent primary tumor size in 51 patients. Seventy-two patients (78.26%) were operable, of whom 18 (19.6 %) were positive for peritoneal lavage cytology. Positive cytology of peritoneal lavage was significantly related to tumor size, tumor grade, serosa/adjacent organ invasion (T4), laparoscopic staging findings, locally advanced disease (R0), and stage of the disease (P < 0.05). In the peritoneal lavage fluid, elevated CEA titers were significantly related to the high-grade tumor (P = 0.012).
Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that positive cytology and high CEA titers in peritoneal lavage fluid of gastric cancer patients without ascites are significantly correlated to the advanced stages.
Background: Cancer, a common disease in the world, is considered the second cause of mortality in developed countries. In the management of symptoms created by breast cancer (BC), pain is the most important. So, this study aimed to evaluate different dimensions of pain in patients using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. In this way, physicians could perform effective treatment for patients.
Methods: This case study was done on BC patients aged 30-60 years old in some specialized cancer hospitals in Tehran. The utilized research instrument in this study was the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS Software.
Results: The BC pain in various dimensions as sensory, emotional, general understanding, and different pain types was studied on 166 women with BC. Our results indicated that pain was more in the sensory dimension in studied patients with an average rate of 80.4, which attributed 1 to 10 rows of the questionnaire. The most chosen words by BC patient in the sensory, emotional, and general understanding dimensions were as follow: the word “Sharp” with 69, “Troublesome” with 47, and “Nauseating” with 87 were the most frequent respectively.
Conclusion: According to these results, it is possible to use effective and better treatment to reduce BC patients’ pain.
Background: In cancer patients, weight loss due to malnutrition has a significant impact on the patients’ treatment and quality of life. This study aimed to determine the appropriate therapeutic strategy to control the side effects of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer to improve their health, quality of life, and nutritional status.
Methods: In our prospective study, we examined gastric cancer patients who were Seventy patients undergoing chemotherapy were included and randomly divided into intervention (n=35) and control groups (n=35). The intervention group received an individualized diet according to their nutritional needs for eight weeks, and the control group received dietary advice on the side effects of chemotherapy. Malnutrition, nutritional barriers, and patients’ quality of life were evaluated by PG-SGA, nutritional barriers, and QLQ-C30 questionnaires. Serum proteins were also assessed at the beginning and the end of the study.
Results: The patients’ mean age was 50.91±1.72 years in the intervention group and 51±1.35 in the control group. According to the PG-SGA questionnaire classification, 68.5% of patients had malnutrition at baseline. In the intervention group, the mean score of PG-SGA decreased, which indicated an improvement in patients’ nutritional status. Increased scores in the functional section of QLQC30 and a decrease in the symptom section of this questionnaire indicated the improved quality of life in patients undergoing treatment at the end of the intervention. Albumin (P<0.001) and hemoglobin (P<0.001) levels increased in the intervention group, while there were no significant changes in these variables of the control group. Serum levels of ferritin did not show significant changes in either the intervention or the control group.
Conclusion: Identifying nutritional barriers in breast cancer patients and individual diet therapy based on these barriers and nutritional needs reduces nutritional barriers. Consequently, malnutrition would decline, and the quality of life may enhance in these patients.
Malignant glial tumors are rare in children. Giant cell variant is a rare subtype of glioblastoma, accounting for about 0.8% of brain tumors and 5% of glioblastoma tumors. Giant cell glioblastoma is a male predominant tumor in children and adults. Due to the low prevalence of this variant, available information is limited. An 11-year-old female child was referred with a chief complaint of a progressive persistent headache. MRI showed a well-defined cystic lesion with a solid mural component in the right parietal lobe with a compression effect on the ipsilateral ventricular system. Surgery was done. After the pathologist reported glioblastoma multiforme, a giant cell variant, the patient received 30 sessions of radiation therapy. The patient was readmitted 18 months later with a headache, and the pathologist confirmed the recurrence of the tumor. Based on radiology, the giant cell glioblastoma cannot be distinguished from the common subtype glioblastoma. The pathologists must be aware of this entity, and histologic differential diagnoses are warranted for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes.