Original Articles

Evaluation of Different Types of Pain in Patients with Breast Cancer

Pain in Breast Cancer Patients


Background: Cancer, a common disease in the world, is considered the second cause of mortality in developed countries. In the management of symptoms created by breast cancer (BC), pain is the most important. So, this study aimed to evaluate different dimensions of pain in patients using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. In this way, physicians could perform effective treatment for patients. Methods: This case study was done on BC patients aged 30-60 years old in some specialized cancer hospitals in Tehran. The utilized research instrument in this study was the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS Software. Results: The BC pain in various dimensions as sensory, emotional, general understanding, and different pain types was studied on 166 women with BC. Our results indicated that pain was more in the sensory dimension in studied patients with an average rate of 80.4, which attributed 1 to 10 rows of the questionnaire. The most chosen words by BC patient in the sensory, emotional, and general understanding dimensions were as follow: the word “Sharp” with 69, “Troublesome” with 47, and “Nauseating” with 87 were the most frequent respectively. Conclusion: According to these results, it is possible to use effective and better treatment to reduce BC patients’ pain.
1. Board PATE. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®). PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]: National Cancer Institute (US); 2019.
2. Shahbazi R, Akbari ME, Hashemian M, Abbasi M, Jalali S, Homayounfar R, et al. High Body Mass Index and Young Age Are not Associated with Post-Mastectomy Pain Syndrome in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2015;8(1):29-35.
3. Goudarzian AH, Bagheri Nesami M, Zamani F, Nasiri A, Beik S. Relationship between Depression and Self-care in Iranian Patients with Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(1):101-6.
4. Sahmani M, Vatanmakanian M, Goudarzi M, Mobarra N, Azad M. Microchips and their Significance in Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells and Monitoring of Cancers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(3):879-94.
5. Maali A, Atashi A, Ghaffari S, Kouchaki R, Abdolmaleki F, Azad M. A Review on Leukemia and iPSC Technology: Application in Novel Treatment and Future. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018;13(8):665-75.
6. Sharma N, Purkayastha A. Factors Affecting Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients: A Descriptive and Cross-sectional Study with Review of Literature. J Midlife Health. 2017;8(2):75-83.
7. Huijer HA-S, Fares S, French DJ. The Development and Psychometric Validation of an Arabic-Language Version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Pain Res Manag. 2017;2017:1472792-.
8. Vanderpuye V, Grover S, Hammad N, PoojaPrabhakar, Simonds H, Olopade F, et al. An update on the management of breast cancer in Africa. Infectious agents and cancer. 2017;12:13-.
9. Peiris HH, Mudduwa LKB, Thalagala NI, Jayatilaka KAPW. Do Breast Cancer Risk Factors Affect the Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Southern Sri Lanka? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(1):69-79.
10. Ahmed AE, Alharbi AG, Alsadhan MA, Almuzaini AS, Almuzaini HS, Ali YZ, et al. The predictors of poor quality of life in a sample of Saudi women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press). 2017;9:51-8.
11. Li J, Sheng S, Zhang K, Liu T. Pain Analysis in Patients with Pancreatic Carcinoma: Irreversible Electroporation versus Cryoablation. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:2543026-.
12. Amirifard N, Sadeghi E, Payandeh M, Mohebbi H, Sadeghi M, Choubsaz M. Relationship between HER2 Proto-oncogene Status and Prognostic Factors of Breast Cancer in the West of Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(1):295-8.
13. Stones C, Knapp P, Closs SJ. Creating a better picture of chronic pain: improving pain pictogram designs through systematic evaluation of user responses. Br J Pain. 2016;10(4):177-85.
14. Macdonald L, Bruce J, Scott NW, Smith WCS, Chambers WA. Long-term follow-up of breast cancer survivors with post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Br J Cancer. 2005;92(2):225-30.
15. Sinaei F, Zendehdel K, Adili M, Ardestani A, Montazeri A, Mohagheghi MA. Association Between Breast Reconstruction Surgery and Quality of Life in Iranian Breast Cancer Patients. Acta Med Iran. 2017;55(1):35-41.
16. Majani G, Tiengo M, Giardini A, Calori G, De Micheli P, Battaglia A. Relationship between MPQ and VAS in 962 patients. A rationale for their use. Minerva Anestesiol. 2003;69(1-2):67-73.
17. Dobratz MC. Word choices of advanced cancer patients: frequency of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2008;25(6):469-75.
18. Lalloo C, Kumbhare D, Stinson JN, Henry JL. Pain-QuILT: clinical feasibility of a web-based visual pain assessment tool in adults with chronic pain. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(5):e127-e.
19. Khosravi M, Sadighi S, Moradi S, Zendehdel KJB, Research CC. Translation, Adaptation and Reliability of Persian-McGill Pain Questionnaire (P-MPQ) in Iranian Cancer Patients. 2014;6(3):12-7.
20. Aboud FE, Hiwot MG, Arega A, Molla M, Samson S, Seyoum N, et al. The McGill Pain Questionnaire in Amharic: Zwai Health Center patients' reports on the experience of pain. Ethiop Med J. 2003;41(1):45-61.
21. Ferreira VTK, Guirro ECdO, Dibai-Filho AV, Ferreira SMdA, de Almeida AM. Characterization of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015;19(4):651-5.
22. Check DK, Reeder-Hayes KE, Basch EM, Zullig LL, Weinberger M, Dusetzina SB. Investigating racial disparities in use of NK1 receptor antagonists to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2016;156(2):351-9.
23. Sanaati F, Najafi S, Kashaninia Z, Sadeghi M. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(8):4125-9.
IssueVol 12 No 3 (2020) QRcode
SectionOriginal Articles
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/bccr.v12i3.5769
Pain Breast cancer McGill Pain Questionnaire Pain management

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Fakhim S, Farahani S, Pourkarim H, Mousavi F, Ahmadi MH, Azad M. Evaluation of Different Types of Pain in Patients with Breast Cancer. Basic Clin Cancer Res. 2021;12(3):130-139.