Background: Despite the enormous effort has been done for cancer therapy, fabricating targeted drug delivery platform which can effectively eliminate cancer is a challenge.Methods: In this study, we have developed a novel platform composed of graphene oxide (GO), poly-l-lysine (PLL), Herceptin (Her) and doxorubicin (DOX) for chemo-photothermal therapy. GO has been prepared using the hummers method. The morphology of the prepared carriers has studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The successful conjugation of PLL and Her to the surface of GO has been examined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). DOX loading on GO sheets was characterized using UV-Vis absorption spectra. MTT and live/dead assay have been dministrated to study the synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy potential of the carries. Results: FTIR shows the successful conjugation of the PLL and Herceptin to the GO surface. TGA analysis suggests that, in comparison to GO, GO-PLL has higher thermal stability. In addition, DOX loading efficiency is around 78.5 ± 4.3 %. Also, Live /dead and MTT assays reveal that the introduced carrier can effectively kill cancerous cells via chemo-photothermal effects. Conclusion: Our results have suggested that the novel carrier is a versatile platform for chemophotothermal therapy application.
Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and the third cause of death in Iran. Evidence suggests that some of the cancer patients are admitted to intensive care units according to their demand. The need for hospitalization in this ward can vary according to different factors such as gender, age, type of disease, etc. Therefore, this study has been designed in order to investigate the epidemiology of cancer patients admitted to intensive care units.Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population includes all cancer patients admitted to the intensive care units of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in the years 2013-2016. The records of all patients were included in the study through census and the necessary information was extracted. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 24 in terms of percentage, mean, standard deviation through Chi-square test.Results: 12273 patients were admitted to intensive care units during the study period, among whom 380 (3.9%) were cancer patients. The age range of patients with cancer was between 16 and 96 years old with the mean value of 60.11 years and the standard deviation of 17.49 and the majority of patients (52.4%) were males. The frequency of patients in terms of the type of cancer includes 40% of gastrointestinal cancer, 20% of brain cancer, 9.2% of lung cancer, 6.6% of kidney cancer, 6.6% of breast cancer, 5.5% of blood cancer, and 11.8% of other cancers. The mortality rate of cancer patients admitted to ICUs was 36.1%. The frequency of patients with gastrointestinal, lung, blood, kidney and brain cancers admitted in the intensive care units in males was significantly higher than females (p <0.001).Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that, despite the need to receive intensive care in cancer patients due to the lack of beds in these wards, unfortunately, cancer patients are less admitted in these wards, therefore, practical measures should be considered in this regard, such as the establishment of intensive care units for cancer patients.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women, and is among the five most prevalent cancer types among Iranian women. Advanced-stage breast cancer is often correlated with distant metastases. Alterations in gene expression affect general cytoskeleton changes during differentiation and oncogenesis, and can be considered an important factor in tumor progression. Gelsolin plays a significant role in actin assembly and has been introduced as a tumor activator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of Gelsolin in breast cancer as well as its correlation with patients’ clinical parameters.Methods: In this study, 70 breast cancer patients, who had been referred to Imam Khomeini Complex Cancer Institute for surgery were randomly selected. Normal and tumor tissues were prepared and stored at -80°C. Gelsolin gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The results showed that Gelsolin gene expression had increased in 68.6% of the tumor samples. In addition, there was a significant association between increased levels of gene expression and tumor progression stages (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between increased levels of gene expression and other clinical findings, such as tumor grade, tumor size or patient age.Conclusion: The results revealed that Gelsolin gene expression had increased in the tumor samples. Gelsolin overexpression also resulted in increased lymph node involvement in breast cancer. The expression of this gene also increased significantly during advanced stages of breast cancer; however, there was no significant relation between Gelsolin expression and tumor grade or tumor size.
Background: Diverse relationships were proposed between esophageal cancer (EC) and serum levels of vitamin D. We aimed to assess serum vitamin D levels in high and low-risk populations for EC in Northern Iran.
Methods:: This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan province, Northern Iran. Based on the incidence rates of EC, the province was divided into high-risk and low-risk populations. A stratified cluster sampling method was used. Serum vitamin D level was assessed by ELISA method. The proportions of vitamin D deficiency were compared between the two populations.
Results: Totally, 246 persons were studied with mean age of 50.7 years. 96 subjects were men (39%). 119 subjects (48.8%) were from high-risk and 127 (51.6%) were from low-risk area. Thirty-two of 244 (13.1%) persons had vitamin D deficiency. The proportions of vitamin D deficiency were 7.9% and 18.3% in high- and low-risk populations (p=0.02).
Conclusion: We found a significant higher level of vitamin D deficiency in low-risk than high-risk population for EC. Regarding the ecological design of this study, causal inference could not be made from our results. So, it is recommended to investigate this issue in future individual-level studies in this area and other high-risk populations.
Background: Leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia being the most common subtype among children. Epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, are found to be important in leukemia. According to the National Cancer Institute, Wilms’ tumor (WT1) is among the most important tumor antigens. This study examines WT1 gene methylation as a diagnostic or therapeutic method in patients afflicted by ALL.
Methods: 37 ALL patients were enrolled in this study before initiation of treatment. Twelve healthy subjects were used as the control group. After DNA extraction and conversion with bisulfite, WT1 gene methylation in samples was analyzed via the MSP technique.
Results: The WT1 gene promoter was not methylated in patients or the control group.
Conclusion: Due to the absence of WT1 gene promoter methylation in patients, as well as the healthy group, it is likely that methylation of the promoter of this gene is of no consequence in leukemia development, and subsequently cannot aid in its diagnosis.
Interdigitating dendritic cells (IDCs) act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) of the immune system and have the ability to stimulate T cells. These cells are mostly seen in the paracortex of the lymph node. The interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) originating from the IDC is an extremely rare tumor. This tumor is observed in both lymph nodes and non-lymph nodes. This malignancy is difficult to diagnose due to its rarity, and thus far no guideline has been established for its treatment. However, it seems that the best treatment for this malignancy is radical resection of the tumor. Meanwhile, the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the survival and recurrence of the tumor is not clear. In this study, we present a case of IDCS originating from a cervical lymph node, which was first exposed to mass resection, with IHC evaluation revealing negative CD1a, CD3, CD20, CD23, and CD21 factors and positive S100 and LCA factors. After confirming the diagnosis,modified radical neck dissection was performed. In the next stage, the patient underwent chemotherapy with an R-CHOP regimen (Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Oncovin, Prednisone) and neck radiotherapy. 18 months after the formation of the tumor, no sign of recurrence or metastasis was observed in the patient.