Vol 11 No 3 (2019)


Original Articles

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    Introduction: The potential of Candida albicans to modulate antigen-presenting cells maturation has been documented in past studies. Dendritic cells are critical modulators in the orchestration of adaptive immune responses alongside myeloid subtypes, which play an important role in the presentation of antigens to T cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of splenocytes activated with the extract of heated 4T1 cells and the yeast form of C. albicans against breast cancer growth in vivo‏.Methods: 4T1 cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flanks of female BALB/c mice (n=40). At a time when palpable tumors had developed, experimental groups were immunized twice at one-week interim with either activated splenocytes with the extract of heated 4T1 or the killed preparation of yeast form of C. albicans or a combination of the two-One week after the second injection, one-half of animals (n=20) were euthanized to investigate the immune response profile. Results: Administration of activated splenocytes with the combination protocol caused a favorable survival curve and slower rates of tumor development compared to other tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, combination therapy significantly increased the secretion of IFN-γ, respiratory burst and nitric oxide production and conversely diminished the secretion of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β in the splenocyte population.Conclusions: Since the murine 4T1 cell line is similar to the final stage of human breast carcinoma, we postulate that activated splenocytes with the extract of heated 4T1 cells and yeast form of C. albicans can reduce tumor development in tumor-bearing mice.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 688 | views: 289 | pages: 124-134
    Background: Studies have shown that cancer creates a variety of problems and issues for children with cancer. It creates unique challenges for both the patients and their families. Despite the severe stress associated with these problems, most children are able to adequately cope with and adapt to cancer. However, some of the patients experience more severe or prolonged problems that require psychological support. The present study investigated the needs and coping strategies of Iranian children aged 9 to 13 with cancer. The goal was to determine the needs, concerns and coping strategies in children after being diagnosed with cancer.Methods: For this purpose, 12 children aged 9-13 with cancer as well as their mothers were selected from among children admitted to Mofid hospital. Patient selection was conducted in a purposeful sampling method. Data was collected in an in-depth semi-structured interview with the child and their mother and then analyzed using content analysis method.Results: The content analysis of individual interviews with the child and mother showed that the main concerns of these children were related to the hospital space, support, society, family and educational needs, which were responded to by five distinct types of coping. These coping methods include spiritual coping, admission ofsupport and assistance, visiting relatives (on a regular basis) in a positive manner and negative behaviors such as active and passive aggression and avoiding presence in the community and society. The findings of this study indicate that Iranian children with cancer have special needs some of which have mental and emotional aspects, including worry about being a burden on their families, and they use different coping strategies to cope with their condition. One of the most important means of coping with cancer are family and relatives.Conclusion: Treatment centers should address these factors in order to improve the mental and physical health of their patients.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 723 | views: 873 | pages: 135-141
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The beginning and progression of the disease are thought to be determined by combinations of epigenetic and genetic changes that trigger multistep programs of carcinogenesis. In colorectal cancer, epigenetic alterations, in particular promoter CpG island methylation, occur more commonly than genetic mutations. Hyper-methylation contributes to carcinogenesis via inducing transcriptional silencing or down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes.  DNA methylation alteration has a high potential for minimally invasive biomarker identification. Genome analysis has confirmed that microRNA expression is deregulated in most cancer types through several mechanisms, including failings in the microRNA biogenesis machinery. Moreover, microRNAs can be dysregulated by abnormal CpG methylation in cancer. Since it is believed that epigenetic changes occur in the early stages of the disease,  these changes can be used for the early detection of cancer. In this review, we intend to study the role of microRNA gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer.

Case Reports

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    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. HPV infection can cause some types of cancer including female genital cancers (cervical cancer, vulvar) and male genital cancer as well as oropharyngeal cancers and genital warts. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of cervical cancer or genital warts.Case presentation: This case report present a young woman who developed extensive genital warts a year after starting water-pipe smoking. These genital warts healed spontaneously after cessation of water-pipe smoking.Conclusion: The primary hypothesis that could be propounded, is that water-pipe smoke plays a role as an independent risk factor in developing genital warts, similar to cigarette smoke. In addition, water pipe smking may transmit different infections, including HPV infection through sharing the mouth tips of the water pipe between the users.

Thesis Abstracts

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    The aim of this study is achieve an analysis of the mathematical model governing radiotherapy as well as to achieve the concentration of healthy and cancerous cells to reduce the length of treatment and less damage to cancer treatment by this type of therapy. In order to obtain this, we used the latest mathematical radiotherapy model based on the Lotka-Volterra competitive equations and the Adomian decomposition method that is the one of the most advanced analytical solutions to solve differential equations to attain our goal. The calculation of the Adomian decomposition method was applied to the mathematical model governing radiotherapy, and then the concentration of healthy and cancerous cells was achieved with a very good approximation. Comparison of the behavior of healthy and cancerous cells concentrations based on experimental cases and the behavior of healthy and cancerous cells concentrations based on computations express the correctness of the work. ADM indicates the concentration of healthy and cancerous cells during the treatment stage and the no treatment stage can be effective in improving the modeling based on the competitive model of the Lotka-Volterra equations, which results in the reduction of the use of diagnostic devices, less radiation, the faster treatment process and decreasing the cost of treatment for patients and governments.