Background: Estrogen is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. The effect of estrogen is primarily mediated by estrogen receptor alpha 1 (ESR1). In this study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and the frequency of alleles and genotypes for two ESR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breast cancer patients and a healthy control group.
Methods: A total of 98 female patients with pathologically confirmed breast cancer and 93 age-matched healthy female controls who were selected from among the visitors of the general hospital were recruited in the study. Two ESR1 candidate polymorphisms; +2464 C/T (rs3020314) and -4576A/C (rs1514348) were selected. The frequency of alleles and genotypes was determined using Quantitative Real-Time PCR assay. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was assessed for each pair of markers. Using logistic regression, genotype frequencies were estimated as Odds Ratios with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: There was no significant difference in the genotype and allele distributions of ESR1 for SNPs +2464 C/T and SNP -4576A/C between patients and controls. The frequency of the ESR1 +2464 T/T genotype in case and control groups was 31.6% vs 29.0%, (OR TT/TC: 1.13, 95%CI: 0.58, 2.20; P = 0.69). The frequency of the +2464C allele was 33.9% vs 35.2%, (OR C/T: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.60, 1.47; P =0.79). The frequency of the ESR1 -4576C/C genotype in case and control groups was 37.75% vs 33.36 %, OR CC/AC: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.51, 1.97; P =0.98). The frequency of the -4576A allele was 36.2% vs 43.6 %, (OR C/A: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.47, 1.13; P =0.14).
Conclusion: The results indicated that ESR1 polymorphism does not show any significant association with breast cancer risk among female Iranian adults.
Background: To evaluate the efficacy of Bioceram injection in men with severe stress urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy.Methods: A total of 18 patients underwent retrograde injection of Bioceram for severe stress urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Evaluation by pad test, international consultation on the Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and American Urology Association Symptom Score - Quality of Life (AUASS-QOL) was performed before and after injection therapy. Patients were considered cured if they were using no pads or only one safety pad per day.Results: Of 18 patients, 14 had received postoperative external beam radiation therapy. Furthermore, 5 patients required transurethral incision due to simultaneous stricture of the urethrovesical anastomosis. The baseline daily pad count changed from a mean of 6.1± 0.8 to 5.3 ± 1.7 (p = 0.010). None of the patients were cured and only 3 patients showed signs of improvement following injection.Conclusion: In patients with severe urinary incontinence, treatment with bulking agent injection is associated with modest efficacy.
Background: One of the main goals of patient management is the reconstruction of tissue defects following surgical resection for oral cancer. A variety of flaps are used for this purpose, the most frequent being a Pectoralis Major Myocutaneus Flap (PMMF). This flap is currently widely used for the reconstruction of different defects of the head and neck.
Methods: Surgical resection of the primary tumor, as well as neck dissection, was performed on 29 patients with oral squamos cell carcinoma between 2011–2017 in City Hospital #1 and Surgical Training Clinic of Azerbaijan Medical University. PMMF was used for the reconstruction of defects using a deltopectoral flap incision.
Result: In 22 patients (75.8 %) primary healing occurred following a PMMF. Four patients (13.8 %) suffered PMMF necrosis and were taken back to the operating room for secondary reconstruction with a deltopectoral flap. In three patients (10.3%) the skin of the flap underwent necrosis, resulting in the development of an orocutaneus fistula.
Conclusion: Use of PMMF with deltopectoral flap incision enables deltopectoral flap availability. This flap can then be used early on or if PMMF fails.
According to the studies the rate of emergency departments use among cancer patients exceed among those of the general population; however there are differences in study populations by cancer type, initial treatments, socioeconomic status, disease stages, and health insurance status and so on. Patients' symptoms and severity of complications are varied as well. The emergency departments are actively involved in different stages of cancer management such as primary diagnosis, ongoing treatments and end-of-life period. Cancer patients in their end of life period usually have more serious complications and need more specialized cares, as well as those received chemotherapy and surgical treatments. Understanding the reasons of such visits could be useful in the development of dedicated interventions for preventing un-necessary emergency department visits by cancer patients which is discussed in this mini review.
Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare disorder that occurs predominantly in reproductive-aged women. A 42-year-old male referred to our emergency department in Mousavi Hospital of Zanjan University, suffering from diffuse abdominal pain. He mentioned a history of operation two years ago, during which cystic tumors had been removed from his abdomen.
A cytoreductive surgery was performed. The pathologic study confirmed the diagnosis of BMPM and immunohistochemical analysis verified the negative expression of CD34 marker and positive expression of calretinine in the cyst lining. Preoperative diagnosis of BMPM is difficult and definitive diagnosis requires histological evaluation of the specimen. Due to the of the rarity of BMPM, the need for familiarity with this benign but aggressive tumor is felt.