Vol 14 No 2 (2022)

Original Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 35 | views: 66 | pages: 78-86
    Abstract Objective: We aimed to investigate safety and efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy using EOX regime in patients with locally advanced gastric and GEJ cancer who were admitted at Imam-Khomeini Oncology clinic and Aram clinic. Method: We performed a mix-cohort study in 51 gastric cancer patients. In the beginning, we performed contrast thorax and abdominal CT scan or ECO cardiograph to determine cancer staging. After that, each patient received 3-weeks EOX regime in 6 cycle. After each three cycles follow-up CT scan was performed to assess any possible progression. Response to the treatment, Overall survival, and Progression-Free Survival were the main outcomes that we evaluated in the current study. We used Kaplan-Meier approach and Cox regression to address survival rate and its prognostic factors. Results: Overall, 72.5% percent were male and mean age of study participants was 57.6. Complete response rate was observed in 11.1%, while 51.1% showed partial response. Median of overall survival and Progression-Free Survival was estimated 35.0 and 28.0 month, respectively. The 5-year overall survival was 74.2% and for PFS it was estimated at 57.7%. Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy using EOX regime could increase survival rate among patients with gastric and GEJ cancer.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 50 | views: 64 | pages: 95-101
    Background: Melanoma is the cause of death of 1.3% of all cancer patients in humans. The key role of BRAF protein in the progression of human melanoma has been confirmed and its prognostic significance has been revealed. Because canine cancer resembles human cancer in biological behavior and molecular abnormalities, BRAF protein may be expressed in canine melanoma, the same as human melanoma. despite the investigation of BRAF mutation in canine melanoma, the status of BRAF at the protein level in canine skin melanoma has not yet been examined.   Methods: Thirty-two formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of canine malignant cutaneous melanoma were randomly selected. After cutting into 3-μm-thick sections, the samples were evaluated for BRAF protein expression by immunohistochemistry and using the anti-BRAF V600E (VE1) mouse monoclonal antibody.   Results: The BRAF status was assessed using the Allred scoring system. Among the 32 samples examined, 21 samples were negative and 11 cases showed high BRAF protein expression.   Conclusion:  The detection of positive BRAF expression in 34.3% of canine cutaneous melanoma samples could be a step forward to improve treatment options, use the dog as an animal model in human melanoma clinical trials, and possibly identify a new prognostic biomarker in canine melanoma.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 32 | views: 46 | pages: 102-112
    Backgrounds: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC) group. The increasing frequency of oral carcinomas and their late-stage appearance is a major worldwide health concern. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer growth and progression, as the available relevant data indicate. However, no information is available about the part miR-7113-3p and miR-6721-5p takes in OSCC. In the present study, the expression of MAP2K1, miR-7113-3p, and miR-6721-5p was examined to determine their possible biological role in the advancement of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Quantitative Real-Time PCR was applied to investigate the mRNA expression of MAP2K1, miR-7113-3p, and miR-6721-5p in fresh frozen OSCC tissues and adjacent normal fresh frozen tissues of 30 patients and then, the relationship between MAP2K1 Expression and clinical parameters was studied. Results: MAP2K1 expression dramatically increased in tumor tissues compared to the normal tissues, while miR7113-3p and miR-6721-5p expression significantly decreased. Furthermore, a statistical correlation of p=0.04 was also observed between increased MAP2K1 expression and Perineural invasion. In addition, the downregulation of miR-7113-3p was positively correlated with overexpression of MAP2K1 (p=0.0218) and a negative correlation was observed between downregulation of miR-6721-5p and overexpression of MAP2K1 (p=0.7771). Conclusion: Based on the findings, miR-7113-3p and miR-6721-5p might be prospective biomarkers for OSCC patients, and can be utilized to detect OSCC at an early stage of its diagnosis. MAP2K1 overexpression is linked to the development of OSCC and Perineural invasion.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 40 | views: 51 | pages: 87-94
    Abstract : Background: This study evaluated the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy and hormone therapy on overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative tumor without lymph node involvement. Methods: Breast cancer patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, and no lymph node involvement were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patient records were used to collect data on sex, age, time of disease onset, tumor subtype, tumor size, grade, lymphovascular and perineural involvement, ki67, and treatment protocols. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Patients who received both adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy and patients who received hormonal therapy only. Disease-free survival index (DFS) and overall survival index (OS) were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven female patients were enrolled in this study. Of them, 68.2% received both adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy and 31.6% received hormonal therapy only. During follow-up, recurrences occurred in 8 patients. The 3-year and 5-year DFS were 93.4% and 90%, respectively. The 3-year and 5-year DFS were 94% and 92%, respectively, in patients who received both adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, and 91% and 85%, respectively, in patients who received hormonal therapy. None of the factors studied affected the 3-year and 5-year DFS. The 3-year and 5-year DFS OS were 98.6% and 96.9%, respectively CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, and no lymph node involvement compared with similar patients receiving hormone therapy alone had no significant difference in disease-free survival index and overall survival index. Keywords: breast cancer; disease-free survival index; overall survival index
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 13 | views: 19 | pages: 113-122
    Background:       Carcinoma  breast  is  most  commonly  diagnosed  cancer  at  present. Due  to  systemic  nature  of  disease,  chemotherapy  plays  an  important  role  in  treatment  of  carcinoma breast.  Relapse (loco-regional or metastatic)  is  not  uncommon  in  this  disease.  Both  eribulin  and  capecitabine  are  effective  as  single  agent  in  relapsed  disease.  In  this  single-institutional  retrospective  study,  eribulin  and  capecitabine  have  been used  as  combination  chemotherapy regimen in patients  with  relapsed  carcinoma  breast.   Marerials and methods:       Patients  diagnosed  to  have  relapsed  carcinoma  of  breast,   who  were  ER and/or  PR positive,  Her-2/neu negative  or  triple negative  and  received  eribulin  alongwith capecitabine,  were  included  in  our  study.  Primary  objective  of  this  study  was  to  assess  response,  progression-free  survival (PFS)  and  overall  survival (OS).  Secondary objective  was  toxicity  assessment. Results:      48  patients  were  included  in  our  study.  Median  age  of  patients  was  56 years.  Thirty six (75%)  patients  had  ER and/or PR positive status  and  twelve (25%)  patients  had  ER/PR negative  status. Five (10.4%)  patients  achieved  complete  response (CR).  Thirty two (66.7%)  patients  achieved  partial  response (PR).  Disease  was  stable (SD)  in  nine (18.8%) patients.  Two (4.2%) patients  suffered  from  progressive  disease (PD).  Median   Progression-free survival (PFS)  was  10.15 months.  Mean  of  PFS  of  patients  was  10.72 (95% CI- 9.72-11.72)  months.  Median  overall survival (OS)  was  18.15 months.  Mean  of  overall  survival of  patients  was  19.56 (95% CI- 17.9-21.22) months.      Nineteen (39.6%)  and  three (6.2%)  patients  experienced  grade 2  and  grade 3  anemia  respectively.  Eighteen (37.5%)  and  two (4.2%)  patients  suffered  from  grade 2  and  grade 3 neutropenia  respectively.  One  patients  experienced  grade 2  thrombocytopenia.  Nineteen (39.6%)  patients  experienced  grade 2  diarrhoea.  One  patients  suffered  from  grade 3 diarrhoea.  Palmo-plantor  erythrodysesthesia  was  seen  in  eight (16.7%)  patients. Six (12.5%) patients  suffered  from  grade 2  neuropathy. Two (4.2%)  patients  experienced  grade 3 neuropathy.  Fatigue  was  seen  in  19 (39.6%)  patients. Conclusion:     Eribulin  alongwith  capectabine  can  be  used  in  patients  with  relapsed  carcinoma  breast,  in  whom  anthracycline  and  taxane  have  previously  been  used;  with response  rate  and  survival  better  than  either  single  agent  chemotherapy.  This  regimen  is  important  particularly  for  TNBC,  where  option  for  chemotherapy  is  limited.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 67 | views: 295 | pages: 70-77
    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are mediators of chronic inflammation, which is recognized as an underlying process in carcinogenesis. The role of AGEs in cancers is the focus of recent studies. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in the world and the etiology is unknown, but some risk factors have been defined; including obesity and diabetes. Both of these disorders are linked to AGEs; thus, BC and AGEs might be associated. AGEs in the human body either derive from the glycation of proteins and lipids in the blood, or from the dietary AGEs (dAGE). AGEs are mainly associated with disease states or aging, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer, renal failure, arthritis, skin problems, viral  infections, and osteoporosis. Some bioeffects of AGEs are consistent with the chain of events that occur during carcinogenesis. However, the studies about the role of AGEs in specific cancers are not conclusive, and some recent literature, especially clinical studies does not support the theory of the association between AGEs and cancers,. There does not exist a great deal of studies about the role of AGEs in BC, but the subject has been addressed recently.  The present evidence is rather in favor of the association of AGEs and breast cancer; however, the direction and type of this association are unclear. In-vitro studies show that AGEs promote features of invasiveness in BC, but clinical studies show diverse findings. In this study, we present an overview of the core existing knowledge about AGEs and their relation with diseases; then provide a brief review of the results of studies that have investigated the association of AGEs and cancer, and then proceed to a concise discussion about studies on AGEs and BC.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 15 | views: 29 | pages: 123-138
    Introduction: Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide in 2020. Moderately increased risk of stomach cancer has been associated with tobacco smoking and Alcohol drinking. In this systematic review, we summarized the current knowledge on the relation between smoking and alcohol, both alone and in combination, to the risk of gastric cancer.Method: This study was conducted in 2023 with a structured overview in the Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) databases. We investigated the studies that were published between 2010 and 2023. In the first step, articles were extracted based on their titles and abstracts; the quality of 58 articles was evaluated using the STORBE tool. Inclusion criteria were the English language (first step), the year of the study, and thestudy type (second step).Results: Of these 39 articles, 17 ones were case-control studies, 21 were cohort studies, one was a descriptive study. eleven articles were related to alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer, twenty-three articles were related to smoking and risk of gastric cancer, and five articles were related to smoking and alcohol consumption in combination and risk of gastric cancer. Many studies reported a significant association between alcohol and gastric cancer risk. Also, three studies showed that smoking acts as a riskfactor for developing gastric cancer only in certain genotypes and not in all people.Conclusion: Based on the best of our knowledge and present studies, consumption of alcohol and smoking are risk factors of gastric cancer. It is better to conduct more studies on this issue in different populations in the future. We also suggest that future studiesfocus more on the intracellular mechanisms of these associations than on epidemiological outcomes.