Vol 10 No 2 (2018)


Original Articles

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 174 | views: 372 | pages: 3-15
    Background: MicroRNAs are one of the most remarkable controlling agents of gene expression. MiR-27a is an important onco-miR which has an increased expressionand oncogenic role in many types of cancer through controlling tumor-suppressorgenes such as FOXO1, TP53, RYBP, and FADD. Moreover, it has a dual role insome types of cancer and decreased expression in some neoplasms, including nonsmallcell lung cancer (NSCLC) playing a tumor-suppressing role by controlling proto oncogenes such as IGF-1, EGFR, KRAS, PPFP, MYT1, and CYP1B1. Polymorphismsin pre-miRNA can affect miRNA processing and expression. There are twopolymorphisms “rs11671784” and “rs895819” within the loop region of pre-miR-27a. In 2013, the association between rs895819 and decreased expression of miR 27a alongside an increased risk of NSCLC was determined. Hence, the rs11671784polymorphism was selected for this study. This study aims to investigate the associationbetween the rs11671784 polymorphism within the loop region of pre-miR-27aand lung cancer susceptibility.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on genomic DNA from the blood samples of 110 healthy subjects and 70 patients collected from the Omid Hospital of Isfahan using the salting-out method. The genotype of rs11671784 was determined using appropriate primers and the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique. A statistical analysis was performed using the Power MarkerSPSS version-23 software and the SISA website.Results: This study proved that the presence of the T allele at the polymorphic position can reduce the risk of lung cancer up to 6.7 fold (OR=0.15, p=0.039, 95%CI=0.019-1.2), likely because of its effect in pre-miR-27a processing. In fact, onlyone patient was found with the T allele, compared to ten in healthy subjects, who was a smoker suffering adenocarcinoma. The U allele observed in the pre-miR-27a compared to the C allele, can reduce the free energy (ΔG) by 0.8 kcal/mol and stabilizethe structure, and accordingly, may lead to an increase in miR-27a.Conclusion: The present study examines the correlation between rs11671784 and lung cancer for the first time, which suggests that rs11671784 could be known as a biomarker for resistance to lung cancer among the studied population. However further studies are needed to determine the effect of this polymorphism on the expressionof miR-27a.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 735 | views: 770 | pages: 16-24
    Introduction: In Iran, cancer is the third leading cause of death. Obtaining basic data about knowledge of general population regarding cancer is necessary to program a proper primary cancer prevention plan. The previously collected data in Iran about cancer knowledge was not based on a comprehensive, standard questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare an appropriate questionnaire to fill this gap. Methods: The Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) questionnaire was chosen as the ideal tool for data collection. The questionnaire was translated, back translated and modified based on the comments of experts. The clarity and appropriateness of the translated version of ABC was tested by interviewing a select population of 30 Iranian individuals. Results: We developed a Farsi version of the ABC questionnaire containing 47 main questions corresponding to the original ABC. Slight modification and additions were applied. Conclusion: The Farsi version of the ABC questionnaire is an appropriate tool for the evaluation of the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the Iranian population regarding cancer prevention. 
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 151 | views: 246 | pages: 25-32
    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and can be caused by a variety of genetic and acquired/environmental factors. Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1) is an apoptosis inducer gene that interacts with the Bcl2 protein family and triggers apoptosis via direct contact or by changing into the Bax protein conformation using the phosphorylation mechanism. Bif-1 also interacts with Beclin-1, a protein that plays a central role in autophagy through mediation of UVRAG (ultraviolet irradiation resistant-associated gene), a positive regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex 3 (PI3KC3), thereby inducing autophagy in mammalian cells. Considering the dual role of Bif-1 in many tumors of different origins, in this study we assessed Bif-1 gene expression to investigate its potential role as a possible prognostic biomarker in Iranian colorectal cancer patients. Methods: Bif-1 gene expression in tumors and normal adjacent tissues in 50 colorectal cancer patients were quantified using Real-time RT-PCR. Also, the association between Bif-1 gene expression levels with the histopathological characteristics of patients was assessed. Results: The results indicated an overall upregulation of the Bif-1 gene in colorectal tumors compared with normal adjacent tissues (p < 0.0001). Also, Bif-1expression was significantly elevated in stages II and III compared with stage I, and down-regulated in stage IV patients with distant metastasis. A positive association was also observed between lymph node involvement and tumor size ≥ 5 centimeters with Bif-1 overexpression (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, up-regulation of the Bif-1 gene could be considered as a possible prognostic candidate in colorectal cancers associated with nodal metastasis and greater tumor size. Further validation of these results are recommended in studies with larger sample sizes.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 410 | views: 677 | pages: 33-48
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite improved treatment procedures, the disease rarely can be cured completely mainly because of recurrence. It is well evident that cancer recurrence is caused by cancer stem cells (CSCs), rare and immortal cells that can initiate and develop tumors and protect them against anticancer agents. CSCs are generated as a result of failures in intracellular signaling pathways of which Wnt/β-catenin has a key role in CRC. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is thought to be the major signaling in the maintenance of homeostasis of intestinal stem cells. Proliferation, upward migration of the colony crypt daughter cells, and differentiation into all epithelial cell types at least in part is regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, suggesting its essential role during intestinal development and homeostasis. However, continuous activation of this signaling pathway in intestinal stem cells due to somatic mutations is a hallmark of most CRCs. Hence targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling in CSCs can be a focus of new treatment strategies. Curcumin, the effective compound of plant Curcuma longa, has been studied as an anticancer agent. Recently, it has been shown that curcumin and its analogues decrease the risk of tumor recurrence by targeting CSCs via various cell signaling, in particular, Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this review, we describe a relationship between Wnt-regulated CSCs and progression of CRC and the efficacy of curcumin and its analogues in targeting colorectal CSCs and also the Wnt/β-catenin molecular pathway involved.

Brief Communications

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 265 | pages: 49-53
    Background: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that often modifies the function of genes and affects gene expression, which may sometimes lead to cancerdevelopment. Tumor suppressor genes such as VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau) may besilenced when affected by epigenetic alteration. This study investigated the DNAmethylation of VHL gene in ALL (Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) patients withmethylation specific PCR (MSP). Methods: The DNA of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of 26 ALL patientsand 26 healthy control subjects were extracted, treated with bisulfite, and VHL genemethylation was subsequently analyzed using the MSP technique.Results: None of the patients showed signs of methylation in the VHL gene. Conclusion: Due to the lack of methylation in the VHL gene promoter in patientsand in the healthy control group, it is unlikely that the methylation of this gene canbe used in the diagnosis and prognosis of ALL patients.