BT-474 Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis Induced by Crocin, a Saffron Carotenoid
AbstractBackground: Saffron carotenoids have been known as powerful phytochemicals in breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer properties of an important saffron carotenoid, crocin, on BT-474 which is a known HER2+ breast cancer cell line. Methods: The effect of crocin on cell viability was investigated using MTT assay. Apoptosis induction was studied via flow cytometry and Western blotting of caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-9. Involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) was also investigated via RT-PCR study of the XBP1 gene. Results: The results showed that crocin treatment decreases the viability of BT-474 cells and induces early and late apoptosis in these cells. The mechanism of crocin action was through the induction of caspase-9 expression and cleavage. Furthermore, we found that crocin induced XBP1 gene splicing in these cells. Conclusion: The present study provides important evidence that crocin induces apoptosis in BT-474 cells. In addition, the activation of UPR may play a role in the anticancer effects of crocin.
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