Translation and validation of Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) questionnaire as a standard tool for cancer awareness studies in Iran

  • Parya Akbari Cancer Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Students’ Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Paria Bolourinejad Cancer Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran
  • Aida Amirmoghaddami Cancer Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Maryam Tajik Cancer Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Students’ Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Laleh Rashidian Cancer Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Kazem Zendehdel Cancer Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Cancer Biology Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: cancer, awareness, questionnaire

Abstract

Introduction: In Iran, cancer is the third leading cause of death. Obtaining basic data about knowledge of general population regarding cancer is necessary to program a proper primary cancer prevention plan. The previously collected data in Iran about cancer knowledge was not based on a comprehensive, standard questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare an appropriate questionnaire to fill this gap. Methods: The Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) questionnaire was chosen as the ideal tool for data collection. The questionnaire was translated, back translated and modified based on the comments of experts. The clarity and appropriateness of the translated version of ABC was tested by interviewing a select population of 30 Iranian individuals. Results: We developed a Farsi version of the ABC questionnaire containing 47 main questions corresponding to the original ABC. Slight modification and additions were applied.Conclusion: The Farsi version of the ABC questionnaire is an appropriate tool for the evaluation of the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the Iranian population regarding cancer prevention. 

References

Ferlay, J., et al., Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International journal of cancer, 2015. 136(5).

Torre, L.A., et al., Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 2015. 65(2): p. 87-108.

Parkin, D.M., et al., Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 2005. 55(2): p. 74-108.

Organization, W.H. Cancer Fact sheet. 2017 [cited 2017 21 Apr]; Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/.

WHO. The top 10 causes of death. 2017 January 2017 [cited 2017 August 13]; Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index1.html.

Organization, W.H., Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2014. 2014.

Ott, J., A. Ullrich, and A. Miller, The importance of early symptom recognition in the context of early detection and cancer survival. European Journal of Cancer, 2009. 45(16): p. 2743-2748.

Burgess, C.C., et al., Who and what influences delayed presentation in breast cancer? British Journal of Cancer, 1998. 77(8): p. 1343-1348.

in Cancer Control: Knowledge into Action: WHO Guide for Effective Programmes: Module 3: Early Detection. 2007, World Health Organization

Copyright (c) World Health Organization 2007.: Geneva.

Organization, W.H., Cancer control: knowledge into action: WHO guide for effective programmes. Vol. 2. 2007: World Health Organization.

Weller, D., et al., The Aarhus statement: improving design and reporting of studies on early cancer diagnosis. British journal of cancer, 2012. 106(7): p. 1262-1267.

Hvidberg, L., et al., Cancer awareness and socio-economic position: results from a population-based study in Denmark. BMC Cancer, 2014. 14: p. 581.

Richards, M., The national awareness and early diagnosis initiative in England: assembling the evidence. 2009, Nature Publishing Group.

Hansen, R.P., et al., Time intervals from first symptom to treatment of cancer: a cohort study of 2,212 newly diagnosed cancer patients. BMC health services research, 2011. 11(1): p. 284.

Freitas, A.G.Q. and M. Weller, Patient delays and system delays in breast cancer treatment in developed and developing countries. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 2015. 20: p. 3177-3189.

Al-Azri, M., et al., Awareness of risk factors for cancer among Omani adults--a community based study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014. 15(13): p. 5401-6.

Liu, L.Y., et al., Breast cancer awareness among women in Eastern China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 2014. 14: p. 1004.

Yurdakos, K., et al., Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of women working in government hospitals regarding breast self examination. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2013. 14(8): p. 4829-4834.

Mansour-Ghanaei, F., et al., Knowledge about gastric carcinoma in North of Iran, a high prevalent region for gastric carcinoma: a population-based telephone survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012. 13(7): p. 3361-6.

Forbes, L.J., et al., Differences in cancer awareness and beliefs between Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): do they contribute to differences in cancer survival? Br J Cancer, 2013. 108(2): p. 292-300.

Brain, K.E., et al., Ovarian cancer symptom awareness and anticipated delayed presentation in a population sample. BMC cancer, 2014. 14(1): p. 171.

Forbes, L.J., et al., Risk factors for delay in symptomatic presentation: a survey of cancer patients. British journal of cancer, 2014. 111(3): p. 581-588.

Rubin, G., et al., Research into practice: prompt diagnosis of cancer in primary care. Br J Gen Pract, 2014. 64(625): p. 428-430.

Stubbings, S., et al., Development of a measurement tool to assess public awareness of cancer. Br J Cancer, 2009. 101 Suppl 2: p. S13-7.

Madanat, H. and R.M. Merrill, Breast Cancer Risk-factor and Screening Awareness Among Women Nurses and Teachers in Amman, Jordan. Cancer Nursing, 2002. 25(4): p. 276-282.

Elobaid, Y.E., et al., Breast cancer screening awareness, knowledge, and practice among Arab women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey. PloS one, 2014. 9(9): p. e105783.

Babiker, T.M., et al., Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Patients in Omdurman, Sudan: a cross-sectional Study. BMC Oral Health, 2017. 17(1): p. 69.

Al-Azri, M., et al., Awareness of Stomach and Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors, Symptoms and Time Taken to Seek Medical Help Among Public Attending Primary Care Setting in Muscat Governorate, Oman. J Cancer Educ, 2017.

Cancer Research, U. The Cancer Awareness Measures (CAM). 2017 17 January 2017; Available from: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/prevention-and-awareness/the-cancer-awareness-measures-cam#CAM0.

Varlow, M., et al., Self-reported participation and beliefs about bowel cancer screening in New South Wales, Australia. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2014. 25(2): p. 97-103.

Simon, A.E., et al., Ovarian and cervical cancer awareness: development of two validated measurement tools. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 2012. 38(3): p. 167-174.

Williams, K.P., T.N. Templin, and R.D. Hines, Answering the call: a tool that measures functional breast cancer literacy. J Health Commun, 2013. 18(11): p. 1310-25.

Rasmussen, S., et al., The Danish Symptom Cohort: Questionnaire and Feasibility in the Nationwide Study on Symptom Experience and Healthcare-Seeking among 100 000 Individuals. 2014. 2014: p. 187280.

Montazeri, A., et al., Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med, 2008. 7(1): p. 6.

Pakfetrat, A., et al., Oral cancer knowledge among patients referred to Mashhad Dental School, Iran. Arch Iran Med, 2010. 13(6): p. 543-8.

Nafissi, N., et al., A survey of breast cancer knowledge and attitude in Iranian women. J Cancer Res Ther, 2012. 8(1): p. 46-9.

Feizi, A., et al., Assessing awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. J Health Popul Nutr, 2011. 29(6): p. 656-9.

Reisi, M., S.H. Javadzade, and G. Sharifirad, Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of breast self-examination among female health workers in Isfahan, Iran. J Educ Health Promot, 2013. 2: p. 46.

Simon, A.E., et al., An international measure of awareness and beliefs about cancer: development and testing of the ABC. BMJ Open, 2012. 2(6).

Quaife, S.L., et al., Recognition of cancer warning signs and anticipated delay in help-seeking in a population sample of adults in the UK. Br J Cancer, 2014. 110(1): p. 12-8.

Robb, K., et al., Public awareness of cancer in Britain: a population-based survey of adults. Br J Cancer, 2009. 101.

Power, E., et al., Assessing awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms: measure development and results from a population survey in the UK. BMC Cancer, 2011. 11: p. 366.

Waller, J., et al., Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated help seeking among ethnic minority groups in England. Br J Cancer, 2009. 101 Suppl 2: p. S24-30.

Hvidberg, L., Awareness and beliefs about cancer and barriers to healthcare seeking in the general population. 2017.

Weller, D., et al., An investigation of routes to cancer diagnosis in 10 international jurisdictions, as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership: survey development and implementation. BMJ Open, 2016. 6(7).

Malekzadeh, R., M.H. Derakhshan, and Z. Malekzadeh, Gastric cancer in Iran: epidemiology and risk factors. Arch Iran Med, 2009. 12(6): p. 576-83.

Radmard, A.R., Five common cancers in Iran. Archives of Iranian medicine, 2010. 13(2): p. 143.

Polit, D.F., Getting serious about test–retest reliability: a critique of retest research and some recommendations. Quality of Life Research, 2014. 23(6): p. 1713-1720.

Wilkipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnicities_in_Iran. 2017 11 August 2017 [cited 2017 August 13]; Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnicities_in_Iran.

De Vet, H.C., et al., Measurement in medicine: a practical guide. 2011: Cambridge University Press.

Low, E.L., et al., Ovarian cancer symptom awareness and anticipated time to help-seeking for symptoms among UK women. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 2013. 39(3): p. 163-171.

Amanolahi, S., A Note on Ethnicity and Ethnic Groups in Iran. Iran & the Caucasus, 2005. 9(1): p. 37-41.

Hvidberg, L., et al., Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden. Acta Oncol, 2016. 55(7): p. 917-24.

Hvidberg, L., et al., Measurement properties of the Danish version of the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measure. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2017. 17(1): p. 74.

Hvidberg, L., et al., Barriers to healthcare seeking, beliefs about cancer and the role of socio-economic position. A Danish population-based study. Preventive medicine, 2015. 71: p. 107-113.

Published
2018-05-15
How to Cite
1.
Akbari P, Bolourinejad P, Amirmoghaddami A, Tajik M, Rashidian L, Zendehdel K. Translation and validation of Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) questionnaire as a standard tool for cancer awareness studies in Iran. BCCR. 10(2):16-4.
Section
Original Articles